In order to gain some insight into the cause of acute regional toxicity after isolated perfusion using melphalan, 15 patient-related and perfusion-technique-related factors were tested in a logistic regression model. Acute toxicity was graded according to Wieberdink's grading system. In a group of 425 patients, 362 (85%) encountered no or slight toxicity with a grade I or II reaction, and 63 (15%) patients encountered more severe toxicity with a grade III, IV, or V reaction. Most patients were treated with a standard dose of 10 or 13 mg melphalan per h'ter of perfused tissue for leg and arm perfusions, respectively. Factors associated with a more severe toxicity reaction proved to be tissue temperatures of 40 °C or higher, female gender, a deterioration of the gas values of the venous perfusate during perfusion, and perfusion at a proximal level of isolation. Consideration of these prognostic factors may lead to a further decrease of acute regional toxicity in perfusion.