Background: Fluconazole is one of the oldest antifungal drugs. Previous studies have raised concerns considering variability in exposure and inadequate target attainment in critically ill pa-tients. The current study aims to define variability and target attainment for fluconazole exposure in a large group of critically ill patients. Methods: In this pharmacokinetic study, daily plasma trough samples and, if possible, 24 h urine samples were collected to determine fluconazole concentration. A minimum target trough concentration of 10–15 mg/L was selected, corresponding to a free area under the concentration–time curve above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) of at least 100 for an MIC of 4 mg/L. Covariates that significantly influenced fluconazole exposure were identified. Results: In total, 288 plasma samples from 43 patients, with a median age of 66 years, were included. The median fluconazole trough concentration was 22.9 mg/L. A notable component of the measured concentrations was below the target trough concentrations (13% <10 mg/L and 27% <15 mg/L). The intra-and intersubject variability were 28.3% and 50.5%, respectively. The main covariates determining fluconazole exposure were the administered dose (mg/kg), augmented renal clearance, and renal replacement therapy. Conclusions: Fluconazole trough concentrations are variable in critically ill patients and a considerable number of these concentrations was below the pre-defined target trough concentrations.