TY - JOUR

T1 - Population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients

AU - Crommentuyn, K. M.L.

AU - Kappelhoff, B. S.

AU - Mulder, J. W.

AU - Mairuhu, A. T.A.

AU - Van Gorp, E. C.M.

AU - Meenhorst, P. L.

AU - Huitema, A. D.R.

AU - Beijnen, J. H.

PY - 2005/10

Y1 - 2005/10

N2 - Aims: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir in combination with ritonavir, in which the interaction between both drugs was characterized, and in which relationships between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetics were identified. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir were described using NONMEM (version V, level 1.1). First, ritonavir data were fitted to a previously developed model to obtain individual Bayesian estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. Hereafter, an integrated model for the description of the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir with ritonavir was designed. Results: From 122 outpatients 748 lopinavir and 748 ritonavir plasma concentrations were available for analysis. The interaction between the drugs was described by a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir over a dosing-interval and the apparent clearance (CL/F) of lopinavir. The model parameters volume of distribution and absorption rate constant were 61.6 I (95% prediction interval (PI) 22.4, 83.7) and 0.564 h-1 (95% PI 0.208, 0.947), respectively. The model yielded a theoretical value for the CL/F of lopinavir without ritonavir of 14.8 l h -1 (95%PI 12.1, 20.1), which translates to a value of 5.73 l h -1 in the presence of ritonavir. The only factor with significant effect on the pharmacokinetics was concurrent use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), which increased the CL/F of lopinavir by 39% (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We have developed a model that has defined a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir and the CL/F of lopinavir, and provided an adequate description of the pharmacokinetic parameters for the latter. Concomitant use of the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine increased the CL/F of lopinavir.

AB - Aims: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir in combination with ritonavir, in which the interaction between both drugs was characterized, and in which relationships between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetics were identified. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir were described using NONMEM (version V, level 1.1). First, ritonavir data were fitted to a previously developed model to obtain individual Bayesian estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. Hereafter, an integrated model for the description of the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir with ritonavir was designed. Results: From 122 outpatients 748 lopinavir and 748 ritonavir plasma concentrations were available for analysis. The interaction between the drugs was described by a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir over a dosing-interval and the apparent clearance (CL/F) of lopinavir. The model parameters volume of distribution and absorption rate constant were 61.6 I (95% prediction interval (PI) 22.4, 83.7) and 0.564 h-1 (95% PI 0.208, 0.947), respectively. The model yielded a theoretical value for the CL/F of lopinavir without ritonavir of 14.8 l h -1 (95%PI 12.1, 20.1), which translates to a value of 5.73 l h -1 in the presence of ritonavir. The only factor with significant effect on the pharmacokinetics was concurrent use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), which increased the CL/F of lopinavir by 39% (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We have developed a model that has defined a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir and the CL/F of lopinavir, and provided an adequate description of the pharmacokinetic parameters for the latter. Concomitant use of the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine increased the CL/F of lopinavir.

KW - HIV

KW - Lopinavir/ritonavir

KW - Population pharmacokinetics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=26444450453&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02455.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02455.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 16187970

AN - SCOPUS:26444450453

SN - 0306-5251

VL - 60

SP - 378

EP - 389

JO - British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

JF - British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

IS - 4

ER -