Population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients

K. M.L. Crommentuyn, B. S. Kappelhoff, J. W. Mulder, A. T.A. Mairuhu, E. C.M. Van Gorp, P. L. Meenhorst, A. D.R. Huitema, J. H. Beijnen

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63 Citaten (Scopus)

Samenvatting

Aims: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir in combination with ritonavir, in which the interaction between both drugs was characterized, and in which relationships between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetics were identified. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir were described using NONMEM (version V, level 1.1). First, ritonavir data were fitted to a previously developed model to obtain individual Bayesian estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. Hereafter, an integrated model for the description of the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir with ritonavir was designed. Results: From 122 outpatients 748 lopinavir and 748 ritonavir plasma concentrations were available for analysis. The interaction between the drugs was described by a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir over a dosing-interval and the apparent clearance (CL/F) of lopinavir. The model parameters volume of distribution and absorption rate constant were 61.6 I (95% prediction interval (PI) 22.4, 83.7) and 0.564 h-1 (95% PI 0.208, 0.947), respectively. The model yielded a theoretical value for the CL/F of lopinavir without ritonavir of 14.8 l h -1 (95%PI 12.1, 20.1), which translates to a value of 5.73 l h -1 in the presence of ritonavir. The only factor with significant effect on the pharmacokinetics was concurrent use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), which increased the CL/F of lopinavir by 39% (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We have developed a model that has defined a time-independent inverse relationship between the exposure to ritonavir and the CL/F of lopinavir, and provided an adequate description of the pharmacokinetic parameters for the latter. Concomitant use of the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine increased the CL/F of lopinavir.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)378-389
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume60
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - okt. 2005
Extern gepubliceerdJa

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