Busulfan-based conditioning is the most commonly used high-dose conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). The alkylating agent busulfan has a narrow therapeutic index, with busulfan doses personalized to a target plasma exposure (targeted busulfan). Using a global pharmacometabonomics approach, we sought to identify novel biomarkers of relapse or acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a cohort of 84 patients receiving targeted busulfan before allogeneic HCT. A total of 763 endogenous metabolomic compounds (EMCs) were quantitated in 230 longitudinal blood samples before, during, and shortly after intravenous busulfan administration. We performed both univariate linear regression and pathway enrichment analyses using global testing. The cysteine/methionine pathway and the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathway were most associated with relapse. The latter be explained by the fact that glutathione S-transferases conjugate both busulfan and glutathione, which contains glycine as a component. The d-arginine and d-ornithine metabolism pathway and arginine and proline metabolism pathway were most associated with acute GVHD. None of these associations were significant after correcting for false discovery rate (FDR) with a strict cutoff of FDR-adjusted p < 0.1. Although larger studies are needed to substantiate these findings, the results show that EMCs may be used as predictive biomarkers in HCT patients.