Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity after treatment for childhood cancer is a considerable and serious problem. In this review, important insight into the current state of the evidence on the use of different cardioprotective agents, different anthracycline analogues, and different anthracycline infusion durations to reduce or prevent cardiotoxicity in children treated with anthracyclines is provided. It has become clear that, at the present time, there is not enough reliable evidence for many aspects of the prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in children. More high quality research is necessary. Suggestions for future research have been presented. As the results of these new studies become available, it will hopefully be possible to develop evidence-based recommendations for preventing anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in children. Until then, we can only advise care providers to carefully monitor the cardiac function of children treated with anthracyclines. With regard to the use of the cardioprotectant dexrazoxane, it might be justified to use dexrazoxane in children if the risk of cardiac damage is expected to be high. However, for each individual patient, care providers should weigh the cardioprotective effect of dexrazoxane against the possible risk of adverse effects including a lower response rate. We recommend its use in the context of well-designed studies.