The ETV6-RUNX1 onco-fusion arises in utero, initiating a clinically silent pre-leukemic state associated with the development of pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We characterize the ETV6-RUNX1 regulome by integrating chromatin immunoprecipitation- and RNA-sequencing and show that ETV6-RUNX1 functions primarily through competition for RUNX1 binding sites and transcriptional repression. In pre-leukemia, this results in ETV6-RUNX1 antagonization of cell cycle regulation by RUNX1 as evidenced by mass cytometry analysis of B-lineage cells derived from ETV6-RUNX1 knock-in human pluripotent stem cells. In frank leukemia, knockdown of RUNX1 or its co-factor CBFβ results in cell death suggesting sustained requirement for RUNX1 activity which is recapitulated by chemical perturbation using an allosteric CBFβ-inhibitor. Strikingly, we show that RUNX1 addiction extends to other genetic subtypes of pediatric B-ALL and also adult disease. Importantly, inhibition of RUNX1 activity spares normal hematopoiesis. Our results suggest that chemical intervention in the RUNX1 program may provide a therapeutic opportunity in ALL.