Semaphorin (Sema)4A is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is elevated in several autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Sema4A has a key role in the regulation of Thelper Th1 and Th2 differentiation and we recently demonstrated that CD4+ T cell activation induces the expression of Sema4A. However, the autocrine role of Sema4A on Th cell differentiation remains unknown. Naïve Th cells from healthy controls were cell sorted and differentiated into Th1, Th2 and Th17 in the presence or absence of a neutralizing antibody against the Sema4A receptor PlexinD1. Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR and protein expression by ELISA and flow cytometry. We found that the expression of Sema4A is induced during Th1, Th2 and Th17 differentiation. PlexinD1 neutralization induced the differentiation of Th1 cells, while reduced the Th2 and Th17 skewing. These effects were associated with an upregulation of the transcription factor T-bet by Th1 cells, and to downregulation of GATA3 and RORγt in Th2 cells and Th17 cells, respectively. Finally, PlexinD1 neutralization regulates the systemic sclerosis patients serum-induced cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the autocrine Sema4A-PlexinD1 signaling acts as a negative regulator of Th1 skewing but is a key mediator on Th2 and Th17 differentiation, suggesting that dysregulation of this axis might be implicated in the pathogenesis of CD4+ T cell-mediated diseases.