Testicular germ cell tumors occurring during childhood are extremely rare. This study reports the clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis, treatment methods and outcome in a series of 20 boys, aged between 3.5 months and 16 years (median: 1.5 years; 19 were prepubertal), who were treated between 1963 and 2003. Histologically, mature teratoma was present in seven, immature teratoma in four and yolk sac tumor in nine. Nineteen patients were stage I; only one patient was stage IV. Of the 11 teratomas, 10 were treated by orchiectomy and one by testis-sparing tumor excision only. All 11 patients have survived and show no evidence of disease between 10 and 28 years after surgery. The nine patients with yolk sac tumor were managed by orchiectomy, in two plus retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, and in eight plus chemotherapy. One patient is in remission for 10 months, seven are alive with no evidence of disease for 5.5-23 years, and one patient died from a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 years after the end of treatment of the testicular tumor. A gradual switch towards less invasive treatment has been observed over the years. This study confirms the excellent cure rates obtained in children with testicular germ cell tumor, provided diagnosis is prompt and treatment accurate.