Testicular microlithiasis and carcinoma in situ overview and proposed clinical guideline

N J van Casteren, L H J Looijenga, G R Dohle

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftArtikel recenserenpeer review

91 Citaten (Scopus)


Testicular microlithiasis (TM) has been associated with testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) in adolescents and adults and with its precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS). A clear definition of TM and the need for further diagnostics and follow-up is lacking. We reviewed the literature of TM and its association with TGCT/CIS and current follow-up advises and propose a management approach based on associated risk factors for TGCT. In the literature, a wide variance of TM incidence is reported in different patient populations. A consensus concerning the malignant potential of TM has not been reached. In addition, a clear definition on TM is lacking. Although a correlation between TM and TGCT or CIS is found, precise management and follow-up schedules are absent. We suggest that all hyperechogenic foci smaller than 3 mm without shadowing should be named TM irrespective of their number. In addition, we suggest a management scheme for physicians encountering TM in daily practice. Our algorithm suggests taking a testicular biopsy in a selected patient population with at least one additional risk factor for TGCT. A long-term active follow-up schedule, including ultrasonography and physical examinations, is not indicated in the remaining patients with TM.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)279-87
Aantal pagina's9
TijdschriftInternational journal of andrology
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
StatusGepubliceerd - aug. 2009
Extern gepubliceerdJa


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