PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also screened by ultrasound for testicular microlithiasis, which was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. Classic microlithiasis was defined as 5 or more echogenic foci in either or both testes and limited microlithiasis as fewer than 5 foci.
RESULTS: We performed 181 ultrasounds in 181 patients (199 congenital undescended testes) with a mean age of 12.6 years (range 2.6 to 28.6) and 636 ultrasounds in 320 patients (350 acquired undescended/ascending testes) with a mean age of 12.4 years (4.1 to 24.1). Age in both patient groups was equivalent. Median followup was 1.34 years (range 0 to 3.2). Testicular microlithiasis was found in 14 patients (2.8%), of whom 11 (2.2%) displayed classic testicular microlithiasis and 3 (0.6%) exhibited limited testicular microlithiasis. Among these 14 patients 5 had congenital undescended testes, which demonstrated classic microlithiasis. Of these 5 patients 4 had chromosomal deformities. The remaining 9 patients had acquired undescended (ascending) testis, which exhibited classic microlithiasis in 6 instances and limited microlithiasis in 3.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in patients with undescended testis is 2.8%. There is no difference in the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis between congenital and acquired undescended (ascending) testes.