Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often the only curative treatment option for patients suffering from various types of malignant diseases and some non-cancerous conditions. Nevertheless, it is associated with a high risk of complications leading to transplant-related mortality and long-term morbidity. An increasing number of therapeutic and prevention strategies have been developed over the last few years to tackle the complications arising in patients receiving an HSCT. These strategies have been mainly carried out in adults and some are now being translated into children. In this manuscript, we review the recent advancements in the development and implementation of treatment options for post-HSCT non-infectious complications in pediatric patients with leukemia and other non-malignant conditions, with a special attention on the new agents available within clinical trials. We focused on the following conditions: graft failure, prevention of relapse and early interventions after detection of minimal residual disease positivity following HSCT in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia, chronic graft versus host disease, non-infectious pulmonary complications, and complications of endothelial origin.
- clinical trial
- new agents
- post-transplant complications