This investigation aimed to evaluate glomerular dysfunction among childhood cancer survivors in comparison with matched controls from the general population. In the Dutch Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (DCCSS)-LATER 2 kidney analysis, a nationwide cross-sectional cohort study, 1024 survivors five or more years after diagnosis, aged 18 or more years at study, treated between 1963-2001 with nephrectomy, abdominal radiotherapy, total body irradiation, cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, high-dose cyclophosphamide or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation participated. In addition, 500 age- and sex-matched controls from Lifelines, a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, participated. At a median age of 32.0 years (interquartile range 26.6-37.4), the glomerular filtration rate was under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 in 3.7% of survivors and in none of the controls. Ten survivors had kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease according to age-thresholds (glomerular filtration rate respectively under 75 for age under 40, under 60 for ages 40-65, and under 40 for age over 65) was 6.6% in survivors vs. 0.2% in controls. Albuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio over3 mg/mmol) was found in 16.2% of survivors and 1.2% of controls. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease, based on multivariable analyses, were nephrectomy (odds ratio 3.7 (95% Confidence interval 2.1-6.4)), abdominal radiotherapy (1.8 (1.1-2.9)), ifosfamide (2.9 (1.9-4.4)) and cisplatin over 500 mg/m2 (7.2 (3.4-15.2)). For albuminuria, risk factors were total body irradiation (2.3 (1.2-4.4)), abdominal radiotherapy over 30 Gy (2.6 (1.4- 5.0)) and ifosfamide (1.6 (1.0-2.4)). Hypertension and follow-up 30 or more years increased the risk for glomerular dysfunction. Thus, lifetime monitoring of glomerular function in survivors exposed to these identified high risk factors is warranted.