Members of the multidrug resistance protein family, notably MRP1-4/ABCC1-4, and the breast cancer resistance protein BCRP/ABCG2 have been recognized as cellular exporters for the folate antagonist methotrexate (MTX). Here we show that MRP5/ABCC5 is also an antifolate and folate exporter based on the following evidence: (a) Using membrane vesicles from HEK293 cells, we show that MRP5 transports both MTX (KM = 1.3 mmol/L and VMAX = 780 pmol per mg protein per minute) and folic acid (KM = 1.0 mmol/L and V MAX = 875 pmol per mg protein per minute). MRP5 also transports MTX-glu2 (KM = 0.7 mmol/L and VMAX = 450 pmol per mg protein per minute) but not MTX-glu3. (b) Both accumulation of total [3H]MTX and of MTX polyglutamates were significantly reduced in MRP5 overexpressing cells, (c) Cell growth inhibition studies with MRP5 transfected HEK293 cells showed that MRP5 conferred high-level resistance (>160-fold) against the antifolates MTX, GW1843, and ZD1694 (raltitrexed) in short-term (4 hours) incubations with high drug concentrations; this resistance was proportional to the MRP5 level, (d) MRP5-mediated resistance (8.5- and 2.1-fold) was also found in standard long-term incubations (72 hours) at low concentrations of ZD1694 and GW1843. These results show the potential of MRP5 to mediate transport of (anti)folates and contribute to resistance against antifolate drugs.