Patients with hematologic cancers often develop acute and chronic oral complications from their disease and its treatment. These problems could change patients’ oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) negatively. Quality of life (QoL) has become an increasingly important outcome measure in oncology. This systematic literature review evaluates the impact of hematological malignancies and their treatment on OHRQoL as assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Medline through Pubmed and Web of Science were searched through April 2017. Two randomized controlled trials, one cohort study, one cross-sectional study, and one case–control study were included. Heterogeneity across the included studies did not allow for meta-analysis. OHIP-14 domains that were frequently given the highest scores were functional limitation (67%), physical pain (50%), physical disability (50%), and psychological discomfort (33%). The domains that were frequently given the lowest scores were social handicap (100%), social disability (100%), and psychological disability (67%). Insufficient evidence is available to draw any robust conclusions regarding OHRQoL assessed by the OHIP-14 in individuals with hematological malignancies. However, functional limitations because of problems with oral mucosal tissues, the dentition, or dentures, seem to have a larger negative impact on the OHRQoL than social aspects associated with oral health problems. Well-designed larger studies are required to determine effects of hematological malignancies as well as acute and long-term effects of their treatment on patients’ OHRQoL.