Pediatric early warning systems (PEWS) arewidely used to identify clinically deteriorating patients. Hospitalized pediatric oncology patients are particularly prone to clinical deterioration. We assessed the PEWS performance to predict early clinical deterioration and the effect of PEWS implementation on patient outcomes in pediatric oncology patients. PubMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception up to March 2020. Quality assessment was performed using the Prediction model study Risk-Of-Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST) and the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool. Nine studies were included. Due to heterogeneity of study designs, outcome measures, and diversity of PEWS, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. Although the studies reported high sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of PEWS detecting inpatient deterioration, overall risk of bias of the studies was high. This review highlights limited evidence on the predictive performance of PEWS for clinical deterioration and the effect of PEWS implementation.