Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a common cause of chronic cervicofacial lymphadenitis in young children. The differential diagnosis includes other infections, lymphoepithelial cysts and malignancies. Objective: To assess the sonographic findings of NTM cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. Materials and methods: We analysed the sonograms of cervicofacial lymph nodes of 145 children with microbiologically proven NTM lymphadenitis. Results: The size of the involved lymph nodes ranged from 1.9 cm to 4.4 cm. Most of the NTM patients (85%) presented in a stage of lymph node fluctuation with violaceous skin discoloration. On sonography, marked decreased echogenicity was seen in all cases. In 133 of the patients (92%) liquefaction with intranodal cystic necrosis, nodal matting and adjacent soft-tissue oedema were present. 66 children received antibiotic treatment, and the other children underwent surgical excision of the involved lymph nodes. In 69% of the patients successfully treated with antibiotics, multiple intranodal calcifications were present on sonography after 1 year. Conclusions: Sonographic findings can provide additional diagnostic clues for NTM lymphadenitis in childhood. A marked decrease of echogenicity in the early stages, with intranodal liquefaction in the advanced stages, are universal features, albeit not entirely specific. Multiple intranodal calcifications are rather characteristic of end-stage mycobacterial infection.
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||10|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - okt. 2006|