Translational control plays a central role in regulation of gene expression and can lead to significant divergence between mRNA- and protein-abundance. Here, we used genome-wide approaches combined with time-course analysis to measure the mRNA-abundance, mRNA-translation rate and protein expression during the transition of naïve-to-primed mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the ground state ESCs cultured with GSK3-, MEK-inhibitors and LIF (2iL) display higher ribosome density on a selective set of mRNAs. This set of mRNAs undergo strong translational buffering to maintain stable protein expression levels in 2iL-ESCs. Importantly, we show that the global alteration of cellular proteome during the transition of naïve-to-primed pluripotency is largely accompanied by transcriptional rewiring. Thus, we provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the global changes in gene expression in different states of ESCs and dissect the relative contributions of mRNA-transcription, translation and regulation of protein stability in controlling protein abundance.