This review highlights the role of several immunomodulating elements contributing to the tumor microenvironment of various pediatric renal tumors including Wilms tumor. The roles of innate and adaptive immune cells in renal tumors are summarized as well as immunomodulatory cytokines and other proteins. The expression and the predictive role of checkpoint modulators like PD-L1 and immunomodulating proteins like glypican-3, B7-H3, COX-2 are highlighted with a translational view toward potential therapeutic innovations. We further discuss the current state of preclinical models in advancing this field of study. Finally, examples of clinical trials of immunomodulating strategies such as monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells for relapsed/refractory/progressive pediatric renal tumors are described.