Background: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a prothrombotic state and a high incidence of thrombotic event(s) (TE). Objectives: To study platelet reactivity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and determine a possible association with the clinical outcomes thrombosis and all-cause mortality. Methods: Seventy nine hospitalized COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study and provided blood samples in which platelet reactivity in response to stimulation with ADP and TRAP-6 was determined using flow cytometry. Clinical outcomes included thrombotic events, and all-cause mortality. Results: The incidence of TE in this study was 28% and all-cause mortality 16%. Patients that developed a TE were younger than patients that did not develop a TE [median age of 55 vs. 70 years; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.96 per 1 year of age, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–1.00; p = 0.041]. Furthermore, patients using preexisting thromboprophylaxis were less likely to develop a thrombotic complication than patients that were not (18 vs. 54%; AOR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.04–0.84; p = 0.029). Conversely, having asthma strongly increased the risk on TE development (AOR = 6.2, 95% CI 1.15–33.7; p = 0.034). No significant differences in baseline P-selectin expression or platelet reactivity were observed between the COVID-19 positive patients (n = 79) and COVID-19 negative hospitalized control patients (n = 21), nor between COVID-19 positive survivors or non-survivors. However, patients showed decreased platelet reactivity in response to TRAP-6 following TE development. Conclusion: We observed an association between the use of preexisting thromboprophylaxis and a decreased risk of TE during COVID-19. This suggests that these therapies are beneficial for coping with COVID-19 associated hypercoagulability. This highlights the importance of patient therapy adherence. We observed lowered platelet reactivity after the development of TE, which might be attributed to platelet desensitization during thromboinflammation.