Background: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labeled with radioisotopes can be used for diagnostics 123I−) and treatment (131I−) in patients with neuroblastic tumors. Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in 52% of neuroblastoma (NBL) survivors after 131I-MIBG, despite thyroid protection. Diagnostic 123I-MIBG is not considered to be hazardous for thyroid function; however, this has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in survivors of a neuroblastic tumor who received diagnostic 123I-MIBG only. Methods: Thyroid function and uptake of 123I− in the thyroid gland after 123I-MIBG administrations were evaluated in 48 neuroblastic tumor survivors who had not been treated with 131I-MIBG. All patients had received thyroid prophylaxis consisting of potassium iodide or a combination of potassium iodide, thiamazole and thyroxine during exposure to 123I-MIBG. Results: After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, thyroid function was normal in 46 of 48 survivors (95.8%). Two survivors [prevalence 4.2% (95% CI 1.2–14.0)] had mild thyroid dysfunction. In 29.2% of the patients and 11.1% of images 123I− uptake was visible in the thyroid. In 1 patient with thyroid dysfunction, weak uptake of 123I− was seen on 1 of 10 images. Conclusions: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction does not seem to be increased in patients with neuroblastic tumors who received 123I-MIBG combined with thyroid protection. Randomized controlled trials are required to investigate whether administration of 123I-MIBG without thyroid protection is harmful to the thyroid gland.