Catheter ablation using radio frequency (RF) has been used increasingly for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and may be combined with proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) -based MR thermometry to determine the therapy endpoint. We evaluated the suitability of two different MR thermometry sequences (TFE and TFE-EPI) and three blood suppression techniques. Experiments were performed without heating, using an optimized imaging protocol including navigator respiratory compensation, cardiac triggering, and image processing for the compensation of motion and susceptibility artefacts. Blood suppression performance and its effect on temperature stability were evaluated in the ventricular septum of eight healthy volunteers using multislice double inversion recovery (MDIR), motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE), and inflow saturation by saturation slabs (IS). It was shown that blood suppression during MR thermometry improves the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the robustness of the applied motion correction algorithm as well as the temperature stability. A gradient echo sequence accelerated by an EPI readout and parallel imaging (SENSE) and using inflow saturation blood suppression was shown to achieve the best results. Temperature stabilities of 2°C or better in the ventricular septum with a spatial resolution of 3.5×3.5×8mm 3 and a temporal resolution corresponding to the heart rate of the volunteer, were observed. Our results indicate that blood suppression improves the temperature stability when performing cardiac MR thermometry. The proposed MR thermometry protocol, which optimizes temperature stability in the ventricular septum, represents a step towards PRFS-based MR thermometry of the heart at 3T.
|Tijdschrift||NMR in Biomedicine|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||1|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - jan. 2012|