Trial watch: FDA-approved toll-like receptor agonists for cancer therapy

Erika Vacchelli, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Alexander Eggermont, Wolf Hervé Fridman, Jerome Galon, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Eric Tartour, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftArtikelpeer review

190 Citaten (Scopus)


Toll-like receptors (TLrs) have frst been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded rNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLrs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLr agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superfcial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). in this Trial watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLr agonists as of-label medications for cancer therapy.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)894-907
Aantal pagina's14
Nummer van het tijdschrift6
StatusGepubliceerd - 2012
Extern gepubliceerdJa


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