Wilms tumour (WT) accounts for about 6% of all childhood cancers and overall survival of WT is about 90% in international protocols. However, for WT subgroups with much poorer prognoses, i.e. typically high-risk (unfavorable) histology and/or relapse, there is an unmet need to better understand the biology of WT and to translate biological findings into clinics through early phase clinical trials that evaluate innovative therapies. The main challenges are the small numbers of children suitable for early phase trials, the genetic heterogeneity of WT and the low number of somatic mutations that are currently considered 'druggable'. Accordingly, a joint meeting between clinical and biology experts from the international cooperative groups of the Renal Tumour Study Group of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology, the Renal Tumour Committee of the Children's Oncology Group and the European Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer consortium and parents representatives was organised during the first SIOPE meeting in Prague, 2019. We reviewed WT molecular features, ongoing/planned early phase trials and explored available knowledge on organoid technology. The key messages were: (1) relapsed WT should undergo whenever possible thorough molecular characterization and be enrolled in protocols or trials with systematic data collecting and reporting; (2) WT displays few known 'actionable' targets and currently no novel agent has appeared promising; (3) we need to improve the enrolment rate of WT candidates in early phase trials especially for the relatively small subgroup of relapses with an adverse prognostic signature; (4) despite some agnostic early phase trials existing, development of WT-focused trials are warranted; (5) growing organoids with parallel testing of drug panels seems feasible and may direct individual treatment and encourage clinical researchers to incorporate the most promising agents into early phase trials.