Genomic alterations in relapsed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) may provide insight into the role of specific genomic events in relapse development. Along this line, comparisons between the spectrum of alterations in relapses that arise in different upfront treatment protocols may provide valuable information on the association between the tumor genome, protocol components and outcome. Here, we performed a comprehensive characterization of relapsed BCP-ALL cases that developed in the context of 3 completed Dutch upfront studies, ALL8, ALL9, and ALL10. In total, 123 pediatric BCP-ALL relapses and 77 paired samples from primary diagnosis were analyzed for alterations in 22 recurrently affected genes. We found pronounced differences in relapse alterations between the 3 studies. Specifically, CREBBP mutations were observed predominantly in relapses after treatment with ALL8 and ALL10 which, in the latter group, were all detected in medium risk-treated patients. IKZF1 alterations were enriched 2.2-fold (p = 0.01) and 2.9-fold (p < 0.001) in ALL8 and ALL9 relapses compared to diagnosis, respectively, whereas no significant enrichment was found for relapses that were observed after treatment with ALL10. Furthermore, IKZF1 deletions were more frequently preserved from a major clone at diagnosis in relapses after ALL9 compared to relapses after ALL8 and ALL10 (p = 0.03). These data are in line with previous studies showing that the prognostic value of IKZF1 deletions differs between upfront protocols and is particularly strong in the ALL9 regimen. In conclusion, our data reveal a correlation between upfront treatment and the genetic composition of relapsed BCP-ALL.