The survival of childhood Wilms tumor is currently around 90%, with many survivors reaching reproductive age. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are established risk factors for gonadal damage and are used in both COG and SIOP Wilms tumor treatment protocols. The risk of infertility in Wilms tumor patients is low but increases with intensification of treatment including the use of alkylating agents, whole abdominal radiation or radiotherapy to the pelvis. Both COG and SIOP protocols aim to limit the use of gonadotoxic treatment, but unfortunately this cannot be avoided in all patients. Infertility is considered one of the most important late effects of childhood cancer treatment by patients and their families. Thus, timely discussion of gonadal damage risk and fertility preservation options is important. Additionally, irrespective of the choice for preservation, consultation with a fertility preservation (FP) team is associated with decreased patient and family regret and better quality of life. Current guidelines recommend early discussion of the impact of therapy on potential fertility. Since most patients with Wilms tumors are prepubertal, potential FP methods for this group are still considered experimental. There are no proven methods for FP for prepubertal males (testicular biopsy for cryopreservation is experimental), and there is just a single option for prepubertal females (ovarian tissue cryopreservation), posing both technical and ethical challenges. Identification of genetic markers of susceptibility to gonadotoxic therapy may help to stratify patient risk of gonadal damage and identify patients most likely to benefit from FP methods.